Advantages of Multiplex Immunoblot Assays for COVID

In this study, researchers found that multiplex COVID-19 Immunoblot (IB) assays offer many advantages for evaluating antibody responses to multiple SARS-CoV-2 proteins in a single sample in COVID-19 patients. 

The authors found that IB assay results can be obtained in less than 3 hours after serum or plasma collection using pre-prepared IB membrane strips and require minimal washing and reagent addition steps. The IB assays also maintain visible signals that remain stable for several weeks and are easy to interpret. The IB assay can also be adapted to detect antibodies of other immunoglobulin classes, and in other bodily fluids such as saliva and tears, which is important because the mucosal IgA and blood IgG and IgM antibody responses in COVID-19 can differ significantly. The COVID-19 IB assay is also easily expanded to include additional virus antigens.  

Results of the study confirmed other common observations in COVID-19 in regard to IgM and IgG antibody levels being variable with time after infection.  Additional findings of the study suggest that determining both IgG and IgM antibodies early in an infection, before approximately 10 days from onset of disease, and IgG antibodies later (at about 8 weeks after infection), provide the best sensitivity for detecting antibody responses in COVID-19 IBs.

The clinical sensitivity and specificity of the COVID-19 IB assays meet the United States recommendations for laboratory serological diagnostic tests however, authors noted may be most useful for large seroepidemiological studies in specific populations with a high prevalence of COVID-19.

Read the full text article here.

Read additional LDA posts on COVID here

Surveillance of Babesiosis in the US

New study summarizes human surveillance data from 2011-2018 in the United States for Babesia infections reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) through the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). Data shows an increasing trend of reported Babesia cases (14,159 total) during this time period, with white men in the middle and elderly age groups most affected. Data also shows that the New England and the Mid-Atlantic regions of the US reported highest numbers of Babesia cases. 

Access to full article can be found here

Read more LDA articles on Babesia here. 

New Test: Detecting Lyme With “Footprints” of Bacteria

New study shows that detection of Borrelia prophages, equated as “footprints” of Borrelia, can be used to identify the bacteria due to the close correlation between them and the exact prophages found in each Borrelia host. Evidence presented in this study shows that prophages can be released outside the bacterial cell following stressors such as antibiotic use and are easier to detect than the bacteria itself. 

Testing for prophages rather than the bacteria in blood samples, when bacteria may not be present or present in very low numbers, yields a higher chance of detection. The study further states that this test can be developed not only as a diagnostic marker for accurate identification of Lyme disease, but also to differentiate Lyme disease from related infections and coinfections such as relapsing fever.  

Read full article here. 

Read more LDA articles on Lyme testing here.

Periodontitis Associated With Severe COVID

Case study shows that periodontitis was associated with COVID-19 complication including death, ICU admission and need for assisted ventilation. Findings also show COVID patients with periodontitis to have higher white blood cell counts, D-dimer and C Reactive Protein levels, biomarkers that are linked to worse disease outcome.

Read full case study here.

Read more LDA posts on COVID here. 



NIAID Webpage on Lyme Vaccines

The National Institute of Allergy & Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH), has a page on Lyme vaccines including its information on what occurred with the first Lyme vaccine, LYMErix, and what is happening with some current vaccines and vaccine research.

Missouri Tick Study: Citizen Tick Submissions Requested

Photo by J. Occi, PhD (cand.), Rutgers Univ.

The Missouri Department of Conservation (MDC) and A.T. Still University are partnering on a Missouri tick study. This two-year research study is designed to better understand the distribution and species of ticks as well as the pathogens that they carry throughout Missouri. The study will run from April 2021 through September 2022.

During that time, MDC and the University are asking for citizens of Missouri to collect, save, and mail ticks that they encounter to A.T. Still University. To learn more about the research, submission directions, or to submit questions online visit

Read full MDC news release here.

For additional LDA articles on tick and tick-borne disease studies/clinical trials visit here.

NOTE: The Lyme Disease Association, Inc.(LDA) thanks Lyme Association of Greater Kansas City (LAGKC) for this information. LAGKC is an affiliate partner of the LDA.  

Access to Early Journal on Tick-Borne Diseases

Journal of Spirochetal & Tick-borne DiseasesIn the early decades of Lyme disease up until the early 2000s, it was difficult for researchers who wanted to publish in peer review to be successful due to the controversy surrounding the disease and a climate to suppress important information on Lyme disease. The Journal of Spirochetal & Tick-borne Diseases, of the then LDF, published many articles germane to diagnosis, treatment, symptoms. The International Lyme & Associated Diseases Society (ILADS) is now able to feature those articles, which include early articles on neurologic Lyme and gastrointestinal manifestations, a subject difficult to find even now.
To see these journals, click here, which redirects you to the ILADS website.
Read more about ILADS:
One Health Lyme: ILADS Launches New Research Database
ILADS Publishes Evidence-Based Definition of Chronic Lyme Disease

Pets & Lyme Disease in Vermont

Our companion animals get Lyme disease too. Here are several PSAs from veterinarians Pets & Lymein Vermont reminding pet owners to be aware of the problems pets face from Lyme disease. The Lyme Disease Association Inc. also reminds you that pets can bring unattached ticks into the home which can then bite humans.

View “Lyme: A Serious, But Preventable, Disease in Dogs” from the Vermont Veterinary Medical Association (VVMA). 

View “April is Prevent Lyme Disease in Dogs Month” from the VVMA.

View “Pets and Pesky Parasites” from the VVMA.

View more about Pets & Lyme disease. 

LDA Partnering With US Biologic

LDA Partners with US BiologicsThe Lyme Disease Association Inc. is working with US Biologic to promote Lyme Disease Awareness with Biologic’s new awareness brochure and new flyer. Anyone can download and print both for free.  Working together we can help to stop this disease that is affecting 476,000 people annually in the U.S.

View and print the brochure. 

View and print the flyer. 

Visit US Biologic.

Visit US Biologic Pet Health.

Click here for a review of the current anti-tick vaccines.

Note: 2 pages total. Scroll for 2nd page, or click for page 2 at bottom

Promote Lyme Disease Understanding and Awareness3


Lyme Disease in North American Horses

Lyme Disease in HorsesBorrelia burgdorferi Infection and Lyme Disease in North American Horses: A Consensus Statement, was published by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM).  This Consensus statement provides the veterinary community with up-to-date information on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of this clinically important animal disease.
To date, equine veterinarians have relied heavily on published information on both human and canine Lyme disease in order to have a minimal understanding of Lyme disease in horses. The authors state that additional studies are needed to determine the morbidity in horses infected with B. burgdorferi and to identify the clinical signs specifically associated with Lyme disease in equines. 
The Consensus Statement indicates that because horses, dogs, and humans face exposure to the same tick species Borrelia spp. pathogens, that continued seroprevalence studies in horses and dogs will likely be a good predictor of future infection surveillance maps of Lyme disease in humans.
Read the full Consensus Statement here

Watch Lyme disease in horses – Cornell Vet Equine Seminar Series, October 2020

Find additional resources at LDA Pet Spot here.